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Difference between abstraction and encapsulation

  • Abstraction is a concept in object-oriented programming that "shows" only the most important features while "hiding" the rest.  The main purpose of abstraction is hiding the unnecessary details from the users.

  • Encapsulation is a technique for making a complex system more user-friendly. The user does not need to be concerned about the system's internal details or complexities. Encapsulation is a process of combining data and the code that manipulates it into a single entity.

  • Abstract classes and interfaces can be used to implement abstraction, Encapsulation, on the other hand, can be implemented using access modifiers such as private, protected, and public.

  • Abstraction emphasizes what should be done, whereas Encapsulation emphasizes how it should be done.

  • Abstraction solves problems at the level of design, whereas encapsulation solves problems at the level of implementation.